If you want to learn, practice and use scientific Empirical research method and Conceptual research method to understand and study aspects of nature and society, it is essential to have the sound knowledge of propositions, premises, argument, Inference and logical reasoning.

## Understanding inference and logical reasoning

Technically speaking, logics can be consistent, inconsistent, or contradictory. While Presenting valid arguments, one must be aware with these things. Here are some useful examples of consistent, inconsistent or contradictory logics.

- All carnivores are flesh eater. Hyenas are carnivorous animals. Hence, hyenas eat flesh. (This is valid and sound argument)
- Carnivorous animals eat herbivores. Hyenas are carnivorous. Therefore, they eat grass. (Inconsistent logical conclusion because premises do not follow final conclusion)
- Grasslands are habitats of snakes. They only live in grasslands. Therefore, Snakes eat rats. (Inconsistent logical conclusion because all the premises are not true. So, they do not follow final conclusion.)

All the above are model examples to understand the difference between consistent, inconsistent or contradictory logics.

## Consistent logic Vs inconsistent logic

Consistent logic means all the premises in the argument, as well as the final conclusion is true. In other words, if the given premises or claims are true and automatically follows the given conclusion, it is called consistent logic.

In case of inconsistent logic If the claims in the premises and final conclusions are not true and do not follow and conclusion logically, it is termed as logically inconsistent.

### Understanding logics and reasoning

Whether it is about exploring interconnections between different things through observation, or writing problem statement or hypothesis, understanding about logics, reasoning, inference, conclusion, is utmost important.

Logic is the standard or law that determines the process of reasoning. If the reasoning process follows the standards of logic, it is termed as logical reasoning. As I mentioned earlier that there are consistent, inconsistent or contradictory logics.

And you may know that reasoning is all about to find underlying connections between two or more things to deduce or infer final result. Reasoning have different types as well like deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning abductive reasoning etc.

### Explanation of inference

Inference is nothing but the logical conclusion deduced out of given reasons, data, premises, or claims. Simply put, inference is a means and ways of reaching at the logical conclusion by following standards of logics.

## Key takeaways from inference and logical reasoning

1.Exploring and understanding interconnections between different things to construct meaning is termed as reasoning.

2.Deductive, inductive reasoning and abductive reasoning are types of reasoning we practice.

3.Reasoning is the underlying process of thinking. To master critical thinking skills, it is prerequisite.

4.Logic is the standard or law that determines the process of reasoning. If the reasoning is according to the given laws or standards of logic, is called logical reasoning.

5.There are consistent inconsistent or contradictory logics. If the given premises are true and automatically follows the given conclusion, it is known as consistent logic.

6.But, if the given premises are not true and don’t follow the final conclusion, is called inconsistent.

7.Besides, if the given premises and final conclusion seems contradictory to each other or have opposing meaning, is called contradictory logic.

8.Premises are the reasons act as foundation for the given argument.

9.Inference is the logical conclusion deduced out of given reasons or premises. Inference is a process to reach out at the final conclusion.

## Important questions on inference and logical reasoning

Here are some useful solved questions on inference and logical reasoning.

### Q. 1. What is mean by inference?

Ans: It is the logical conclusion deduced from given data. It is a process to reach at the final conclusion.

### Q. 2. What is logical reasoning?

Ans: Reasoning means understanding or finding interconnections between various things to construct meaning.

Logic is all about the standards or laws to determine whether the given reasoning is consistent or not.

If the reasoning follows the standards of logic, it is called logical reasoning.

This is all about the inference and logical reasoning. These are useful and vital terms used in scientific research methods.

Inference and prediction difference

Adverb Clause Of Cause And Reason